Describe the grassroots nature of the case study/project.
The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper
Based on a careful reading of select “public sociology” case studies provided in your course textbook, develop a 500-700-word review and critique of the case study: The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper
Case Study Critical Review 1
First, select Case Study 1.2, Case Study 4.1, OR Case Study 5.3 in the textbook.
Next, for this review (500-750 words), address the following questions in your review of the selected case study. Cite three to five scholarly sources to support your answers:
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What was the social problem/issue the study and/or initiative was intended to address? Do you think the project scope and design was wellsuited to better understand and address the issue?Explain.The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper
Describe the grassroots nature of the case study/project. How did the project come about? What were opportunities and/or challenges experienced in various stages of the project? How effectively did researchers address project opportunities and challenges?The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper
What did project planners do to create active connections between stakeholders (i.e., those affected by—or those in a position to influence—the identified community problem). In your view, what were the strengths and/or limitations of the approach taken to build active community connections between stakeholders?The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper
Briefly summarize lessons learnedby those involved with the project. Provide an example of one lesson that could be directly applied to your proposed action research project.
Case Study 1.2. The Differential Impact of Gentrification on Communities of Color in ChicagoPhilipNyden, Julie Davis, and Emily Edlynn. The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper
The cycle of community reinvestment and displacement of low-income residents is a process present in cities throughout the United States, Europe, and other developed nations. It has been well documented in numerous studies (Dreier, Mollenkopf, & Swanstrom, 2001; Nelson, 1988; Palen& London, 1984; Schill& Nathan, 1983; Smith & Williams, 1986). Also referred to as gentrification and displacement, it has been the source of considerable policy debate in Chicago at both community and citywide levels.5 Displacement—particularly when it takes place as communities are being revitalized—can move low-income populations further away from the very housing, educational, and employment opportunities that could ameliorate the problems of past social and economic exclusion.Because community reinvestment was often seen as increasing racial and ethnic inequalities, the City of Chicago Commission on Human Relations approached the Loyola University Chicago Center for Urban Research and Learning to examine the impact that gentrification has on different racial, ethnic, and economic groups in Chicago. The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper. The commission routinely receives complaints from residents and elected officials about increased racial and ethnic tensions in some communities experiencing reinvestment. Because many city development policies are predicated on the assumption that com-munity investment is always a positive, the commission felt a need to look at this process more closely.5The use of the terms gentrification and reinvestment can have different meanings to different people. The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper. In a meeting with the staff of the Commission on Human Relations early in the research process, we were advised to use the term gentrification in our interview and focus group questions. Since developers and those uncritical of the gentrification and displacement cycle are more likely to use the term reinvestment, it was felt that use of this term might be perceived as biased by respondents. However, in the report itself we use the two terms interchangeably. FOR THE USE OF GRAND CANYON UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2012 by SAGE Publications, Inc. 78——Public Sociology the Center for Urban Research and Learning the Loyola University Chicago Center for Urban Research and Learning is an innovative, nontraditional collaborative university–community research center that only completes research when community partners are involved in all or most phases of the research. Described in more detail in Chapter 2, CURL recognizes the need to combine the knowledge and perspectives of both university and community partners. Without these combined perspectives, we are typically missing half of the picture in understanding issues facing local communities.The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper. Exclusively discipline-driven research agendas do not always hit the tar-get in providing information and insights for current, pressing community issues. In working with community partners, CURL has been able to both pull relevant information from past discipline-driven research and add information that is relevant to the community’s immediate policy concerns. In the case of research on gentrification and displacement, much has been written within the field. However, the specific concerns of the Human Relations Commission around current racial and class tensions have not been the focus of the majority of this work. The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper. Moreover, unlike academics, who are completing an end product that will be of interest to fellow sociologists, community leaders are interested not only in the information but how it might fit into policies and neighborhood-level solutions. When community partners are involved in shaping the research and typically participate as respondents in focus groups, interviews, and surveys created by this collaborative process, research “data” have policy ideas and solutions imbedded in them. It is this natural link between research and solutions that has characterized much of CURL’s research. The Study6As is typical of CURL projects, we enlisted a team of researchers that included faculty, graduate students, undergraduates, and community partners. The primary researchers included two sociologists (Nyden and Davis) and a psychologist (Edlynn). The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper. Among the others involved in the project— particularly helping in community-based interviews and focus groups—were three undergraduate students (psychology and sociology majors), three graduate students (two sociology students and one community psychology 6The full study (Nyden et al., 2006) is available on the Center for Urban Research and Learning website: http://luc.edu/curl/pdfs/HRC_Report.pdf.FOR THE USE OF GRAND CANYON UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper. Copyright © 2012 by SAG Case Studies 1 Equitable Community Development——79student), and a recent sociology Ph.D. recipient who was working on fair housing issues in Chicago. Because there was a need to establish credibility and rapport in diverse communities, the diversity of the team was also important. The team included African American, Latino, Asian, and White Anglo members, which bolstered credibility both with our primary partner—the Human Relations Commission—and with interviewees during the research itself.Although we provided a general demographic picture of citywide gentrification and displacement trends, we focused our report and interviews on two specific areas of Chicago—the predominantly Latino West Town and Humboldt Park community areas northwest of Chicago’s central business district and the primarily low-income African American mid-South Side comprised of four Chicago community areas: Grand Boulevard, Douglas, Oakland, and Kenwood. Both of these areas were identified by city officials and researchers as the city’s current gentrification “hot spots” (Zielenbach, 2005).In particular, the study measured perceptions of community leaders about the impact of the gentrification process. The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper. We interviewed or included in focus groups 68 business leaders, community-based organization executive directors, social service agency staff, religious leaders, and others who were familiar with daily life in the two communities studied. These are people on the “front line” of community activities; they are among the most perceptive of social and economic changes in their communities. They are also aware of how residents perceive, interpret, and react to the changes that are going on around them.FindingsGentrification and displacement in West Town/Humboldt Park have taken on a distinctively Latino versus non-Latino debate. The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper. Puerto Rican culture has defined the neighborhoods since the in-migration of Puerto Ricans in the 1960s. Residents describe a block-by-block gentrification process that they liken to removing their community piece by piece: “I call it erosion because that Puerto Rican character, the Latino character in this area is being eroded. There are huge, huge, huge areas of Humboldt Park that are gone, that are lost to us through gentrification. There are whole neighbor-hoods here” (West Town community leader). The cohesiveness of the Latino community is viewed as threatened. In the mid-South communities, initiatives to preserve African American historical institutions in Bronzeville have become a focus of community lead-ers and economic development proposals. These are not necessarily linked FOR THE USE OF GRAND CANYON UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2012 by SAGE 80——Public Sociologyto plans to reduce residential displacement (which has already occurred) but rather are connected to economic reinvestment that preserves Chicago’s African American historical roots on the South Side. The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper. Bronzeville emerged as one of the most visible African American communities in the United States after the Great Migration of African Americans from the South to northern cities. Located 2 miles south of Chicago’s downtown, Bronzeville served as a hotspot for African American arts, culture, and society in the 1920s and later, claiming historical figures such as Langston Hughes, Nat King Cole, Louis Armstrong, and Lorraine Hansberry as residents (Diane Grams’s case study in this same section discusses the use of Bronzeville’s rich cultural his-tory in its current redevelopment). Although the building of large, high-rise public housing developments in the 1950s and 1960s provided more afford-able housing in the area, the large number of buildings and deterioration of tenant screening and management ultimately contributed to economic decline in the broader community. There were distinct differences between the gentrification and displacement processes in the two communities. In West Town/Humboldt Park those being displaced were very much aware of those displacing them. Current residents routinely saw the gentrifies moving into the rehabbed or new houses as their neighbors left apartments where they may have lived for more than 10 or 20 years. Gentrifies were typically middle-class, White Anglos, while those displaced were usually lower-income Latinos. In contrast, the gentrification and displacement process in the mid-South Side communities happened over a 30-plus-year period. It was more of a depopulation, displacement, and then gentrification process.The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper. The opening up of suburban housing opportunities for middle-class African Americans after federal civil rights legislation in the 1960s led to an exodus of middle-class families who previously had few housing choices outside the neighborhood because of persistent discriminatory practices in exclusive White communities. In addition to this depopulation, persistent racial segregation, lack of infrastructure investment (e.g., schools, libraries, and streets), as well as deteriorating housing quality and eventual teardowns of previously desirable apartments and Greystone houses, caused the community to be even less desirable and created a further exodus of working-class African Americans and even some low-income families. From the 1970s until the noticeable reinvestment after 2000, absentee landowners sat on the vacant lots left after the teardowns. In addition to this, after 2000, the Chicago Housing Authority (CHA) systematically tore down scores of high-rise buildings rep-resenting thousands of low-income housing units. However, many of those units had been vacant for as many as 10 or 15 years before the buildings were demolished. Ultimately, in the first decades of the 21st century, the FOR THE USE OF GRAND CANYON UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2012 by SAGE Case Studies 1 Equitable Community Development——81available empty space, along with increased city infrastructure investment, the transformation of CHA properties to mixed-income developments, interest in creating an African American historical district, and the booming real estate market combined to open the doors to neighborhood redevelopment. Since 2000, the gentrifies, mostly middle-class African Americans, typically moved into new housing built on these long-vacant lots or into substantially rehabbed Greystone’s that may have been vacant for years.The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper. In this community most of the gentrifies and the displaced were obscured from each other’s view by time. Those displaced in the 1960s and 1970s were long gone before middle-class gentrifies started moving in during the early 2000s. This time gap eliminated the possibility of gentrified/displace tensions. Also, since both the gentrifies and those displaced years earlier were African American, race was not a point of tension. If there was any tension, it revolved around social class differences. Given these different histories of the two communities, the gentrification process was viewed differently by residents of both communities. In the African American mid-South Side, it was seen as more of a positive process; many considered the revitalization process as long overdue. Although there were significant concerns over what was happening to displaced low-income African American residents, the prospects of a middle-class African American revitalization of the area’s past heyday of Black culture was seen as a positive. In contrast, in West Town/Humboldt Park, where the ethnic dividing lines of Latino and Anglo were congruent with the visible gentrifier/displaced dividing line, the revitalization process produced stronger ethnic tensions and was perceived in a negative light by many people living in the community. Our report raised a number of other issues. In both communities, the difficulties that communities face in countering outside forces that are reshaping neighborhoods when there is little input from current residents was apparent. In West Town/Humboldt Park, developers converted affordable apartments into market-rate condominiums. The process through which developers bought up rental properties to convert into new condominiums was largely done out of the sight of community residents. Even community-based organizations struggled to get information on housing sales and permit applications. When they did find out, it was often too late to seek avenues to preserve buildings as affordable rental properties.On the mid-South Side, both the absentee landowners and the government represented forces outside the local community’s reach. In the 1950s, construction of massive numbers of high-rise public housing buildings by the CHA on Chicago’s South Side not only reinforced Chicago’s racial divide FOR THE USE OF GRAND CANYON UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2012 by SAGE 82——Public Sociologybut created the concentrated poverty that ultimately set the stage for whole-sale community deterioration. In the neighborhoods adjacent to the CHA developments, absentee slum landlords profited from inflated rents, buildings were not maintained and ultimately were torn down, and outside land speculators bought up cheap vacant lots and sat on them for years with the plan to make money when the neighborhood came back (Hirsch, 1998). From the perspective of local residents, community organizations, and non-profit community development corporations, the current-day revitalization was seen as a positive in some ways. However, just as outside forces had helped to determine the community’s fate more than 50 years before, similar outside forces were directing the community’s comeback.The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper. Outcomes and Impact of the ResearchSince the project was developed at the request of, and in cooperation with, the City of Chicago Commission on Human Relations, there was a built-in user of the research from day one. Since the commission is called in to mediate many neighborhood disputes, particularly those with racist or ethnocentric overtones, the research added a social class dimension to the commission’s understanding. Our close study of Humboldt Park helped to shed light on Latino/White non-Latino/African American tensions. This is particularly salient in a city where there has been a very large increase in the Latino population (a 38% increase from 1990 to 2000). The study of the mid-South Side, while not seeing racial tensions, did shed light on the social class dynamics and tensions within the African American community. This is also of interest to city policy makers who want to strengthen the presence of the African American middle class in the city and stem the decades-long flow from the city to suburbs.A month before the final report was to be completed, there was a suggestion from the mayor’s office that the report should not be released, given the volatile nature of the gentrification debate. This was in itself an indirect measure of both the impact of the study and political divisions within the city administration. Ultimately discussions between the commission and the mayor’s office turned back the suggestion that the report be held back.When it was released in January 2006, the report was immediately distributed to all of Chicago’s aldermen, who were in the final stages of debate on an inclusionary zoning ordinance. The ordinance would require that a certain portion of units in new multifamily construction be affordable in cases where the city had provided financial support or zoning variances for the project. There had been a multiyear battle by a coalition of community groups to pass this ordinance, but Mayor Richard M. Daley had resisted FOR THE USE OF GRAND CANYON UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2012 by SAGE Case Studies 1 Equitable Community Development——83passage of an ordinance that would include a 25% set-aside for affordable housing units. However, in the aldermanic elections that had just taken place a few weeks earlier, it appeared that a veto-proof city council majority sup-porting the higher set-aside might be in place when the new city council was sworn in at the end of the month. With a more aggressive council about to take office, the mayor supported passage of an inclusionary zoning ordinance with a 10% set-aside for affordable units in new privately developed larger multi-unit buildings. Although our report (and its linkage of gentrification/displacement issues to racial and ethnic tensions) was only one of many in the consideration of the ordinance, it made a small contribution to the ultimate passage of the city’s first inclusionary zoning ordinance late in January.The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper. CURL was proactive in making sure the report got into the hands of a variety of community-based organizations. Arranging media coverage of the report and posting the full report on our webpage were two of the ways in which information was distributed. CURL also made a number of presentations to community organizations around the city, particularly in the specific communities studied. The report stimulated additional work with community partners, including a block-by-block analysis of apartment-to- condominium conversions in select neighborhoods. As with other CURL projects, undergraduate and graduate students were actively involved in the research and writing that went into the report. They are listed as authors and researchers on the report. Perhaps more important, they became increasingly aware of how the research fit into ongoing com-munity efforts to bring about equity in Chicago’s neighborhoods. Watching the politics of the research—from the role of the commissioners in helping to frame the research questions, to the hesitancy of the mayor’s office in releasing the report, to the new city council legislation—students recognized that they were among the players in Chicago policy making.ReferencesDreier, P., Mollenkopf, J., & Swanstrom, T. The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper. (2001). Place matters: Metropolitics for the twenty-first century. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press. Hirsch, A. R. (1998). The making of the second ghetto: Race and housing in Chicago 1940–1960. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Nelson, K. P. (1988). Gentrification and distress cities: An assessment of trends in intrametropolitan migration. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.Nyden, P., Edlynn, E., & Davis, J. (2006). The differential impact of gentrification on communities in Chicago. Chicago, IL: Loyola University Chicago, Center for Urban Research and Learning.Palen, J. J., & London, B. (1984). Gentrification, displacement and neighborhood revitalization. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.FOR THE USE OF GRAND CANYON UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2012 by SAGE 84——Public SociologySchill, M. H., & Nathan, R. P. (1983). Revitalizing America’s cities: Neighborhood reinvestment and displacement. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Smith, N., & Williams, P. (Eds.). (1986). Gentrification of the city. London, UK: Allen and Unwin.Zielenbach, S. (2005). Understanding community change: A look at low-income Chicago neighborhoods in the 1990s. Neighborhood change in urban America (vol. 4, pp. 1–11). Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.Case Study 1.3. The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper. Research in Action: The Case of Inner-cityEntrepreneurs DanielMonti The project discussed here, Inner-city Entrepreneurs (ICE), was the brain-child of the author.7 ICE, as it was originally conceived, would bring together the owners of existing inner-city businesses to figure out how to take their enterprise to “the next level,” not just economically but also in their larger contribution to the community. They would receive in-class training, mentoring from technical experts and owners of larger businesses, and networking opportunities that, it was hoped, would put them on a faster track to success. Business owners also agreed to have their experiences tracked for several years after they graduated from the program so that we could track the effects of the program and how attendees put into practice what they had learned. The research team consisted of two faculty members from Boston University and two graduate students, one each from the School of Management and sociology department. Professor Candida Brush, now at Babson College, had contacts with the Kauffman Foundation and assumed 7The early training work was underwritten by the Citizens Bank Foundation of Boston. The research was supported by a grant from The Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, which is located in Kansas City. A good portion of this case study is drawn from the report our research team submitted to the foundation in 2005 (Brush, Monti, Ryan, & Gannon, 2005).
Two academic papers based on findings from the first two cohorts of businesses going through the program have been published from the information we collected (Brush, Monti, Ryan, & Gannon, 2007; Monti, Brush, Ryan, & Gannon, 2007). The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper. In addition to the several hundreds of thousands of dollars contributed by these organizations, ICE received “in-kind” contributions from Boston University, Roxbury Community College, and many individual businessmen and women, lawyers, and other people with technical skills that our participants could make use of.FOR THE USE OF GRAND CANYON UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2012 by SAGE. The Differential Impact of Gentrification Essay Assignment Paper