Discuss Mental Health In Developing Countries
Mental health promotion is frequently overlooked as an integral part of health promotion since its one of the most complex and demanding areas of nursing in developing countries. At least one in three people is thought to suffer some form of mental health problem. (Jenkins ym 2011.) Among most people, mental illness is as a result of the crisis they suffer in life or in the day to day experiences which they can’t cope with (Seedat ym 2008). There is quite a wide range of mental health conditions in developing countries, these include:- neuroses, psychoses, psychological and personality disorders, political instabilities effects like after war trauma, eating disorders and substance misuse (Barley ym 2016). Mental Health In Developing Countries Essay
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Modern mental health nursing requires a lot of knowledge, experience and competence, in developing countries. Nurses need effective communication skills, a caring and compassionate nature as well as respect for the dignity and safety of others. Even though in developing countries they take dignity as important as possible, it is the opposite for mental health patients in some countries. (Adejumo et al 2001, 223).
Mental health is generally described as a situation where individuals discover their ability, can perform normal daily tasks in a productive manner, and they are able to make positive changes to the communities they live in and their surroundings (WHO 2001a, 1). It is of great concern that in practice, mental health promotion is frequently overlooked in health promotion programs especially in developing countries, although the World Health Organisation defines mental health as an integral part of health. It is suggested that more attention should be given to addressing the determinants of mental health in terms of protective and risk factors for both physical and mental conditions among individuals, particularly in developing countries. (WHO, 2005). Mental Health In Developing Countries Essay
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as “a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease of infirmity” (WHO 2001, 1). The World Health Organisation further defines health promotion as “actions that support people to adopt and maintain healthy lifestyles and which create supportive living conditions or environments for health (WHO 2005).
Mental health is also defined as a state of well-being where an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to contribute to his or her own community (Lal ym 2014). Other definitions of mental health refer to the individual’s subjective feelings of well-being, optimism and mastery, the concepts of ‘resilience’ or the ability to deal with adversity, and the capacity to be able to form and maintain meaningful relationships(Jansen ym 2015). A developing country can also be referred to as a Less Developed Country (LDC) or an under developed country. There are a series of definitions for a developing country though there are no agreed criteria used to define the above. This is usually a country with an industrial base that is developing at a gradual rate. Mental Health In Developing Countries Essay
The Human Development Index (HDI) is low as is compared to other countries. These countries are usually in the process of transformation from their old traditional lifestyles moving towards the modern lifestyle that began in the 18th and 19th century as a result of the industrial revolution. A developing country is often characterized by having people with a lower life expectancy rate, the education levels and literacy rates are low, and people’s income levels are very low usually below the poverty line.
The two most striking take-home messages from this paper are: common mental disorders should be looked at on par with other diseases associated with poverty (like tuberculosis); treatment and prevention of mental diseases should involve confronting poverty and economic development, apart from the medical interventions. The rest of the paper provides a discussion of the evidence backing these points and the ways in which they can be implemented. These conclusions and the reasons why they are remarkable are discussed in this critique.
This is a review of 11 community studies on the association between poverty and common mental disorders in six low- and middle-income countries published in English-language journals since 1990 and three…show more content…
However, they qualify this statement, maintaining that this is not a final conclusion since the review contained a small number of studies, none of them longitudinal. The first important implication this paper emphasizes is that there is a strong need for mental diseases to be looked at on par with other diseases associated with poverty. There is no doubt today that mental disorders form a significant public health burden (WHO report, 2001). One category of mental illness – unipolar depressive disorders – is placed third among leading causes of burden of disease in terms of Disability Adjusted Life-Years (DALYs) globally (Global Burden of Disease, WHO, 2004). This is more than that for ischemic heart diseases or even HIV/AIDS. Yet, there is a big discrepancy between the magnitude of mental illness burden (especially in low- and middle-income countries) and the resources devoted to addressing it (Tomlinson, 2009). At the root of this issue is the stigma associated with mental illness. Public stigma and internalized stigma (negative attitudes held by stigmatized individuals about themselves) associated with having a mental illness negatively affect a person’s attitude and intentions toward seeking mental health services (Conner, 2010). Stigma also affects the way policy makers and donors perceive the need to allocate funds and resources to a cause. If common mental disorders are viewed Mental Health In Developing Countries Essay
If health services research is a relatively new discipline, mental health services research is of even more recent vintage. In a brief ten or fifteen years the initial group of mental health services researchers have built on the early foundation of studies in health care and expanded the knowledge base, particularly regarding systems of care and the relationship of public and private services.
Health care reform comes at an opportune time, as the debate demonstrates daily the need for systematic knowledge to answer immediate questions and to develop, support, or oppose the myriad proposals and permutations under consideration. Whatever the outcome of the reform process, it is abundantly clear that services research is an essential element of the health care infrastructure.
Mental health now constitutes one of the most promising areas of opportunity in health services research. The availability of credible mental health information—unexpected by many policymakers—in the health care reform debate has enhanced the stature of the research and its practitioners. The reform debate itself has highlighted both the common and the specialized mental health issues within the health care framework. Mental Health In Developing Countries Essay
The public sector remains the predominant source of funds for mental health services research, primarily via the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and other federal agencies. On the private side, a review of annual reports of various private foundations with significant health services research interests reveals none with a specific focus on mental health. However, most of these foundations have funded several projects involving mental health in conjunction with their major areas of focus, such as substance abuse, homelessness, elderly, children, education, and primary health care. These include The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, The Pew Charitable Trusts, The Commonwealth Fund, The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, W.K. Kellogg Foundation, Milbank Memorial Fund, and The William T. Grant Foundation, The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation health program, which does not accept unsolicited proposals, supports two endeavors to conduct and/or publish significant mental health services research: the Mental Health Policy Resource Center and Health Affairs. In addition, MacArthur’s Law and Mental Health Research Network focuses on many issues germane to mental health services research. This essay examines the development of mental health services research and the opportunities for future research that merit the attention of both public- and private-sector funders and researchers. Mental Health In Developing Countries Essay
WHAT IS MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH?
Unlike other areas of health, mental health has long looked to a single federal agency—NIMH—as the major source of national funding for all types of research, services, training, and statistics. Perhaps for that reason, NIMH has defined the services research arena somewhat more broadly than does the Association for Health Services Research (AHSR), which defines services research as “a field of inquiry that examines the impact of the organization, financing and management of health care services on the delivery, quality, cost, access to and outcomes of such services.” For NIMH, the boundaries among clinical, epidemiological, treatment, and services research are not always clear. For instance, considerable attention has been devoted to distinguishing between clinical services research and service systems research, both of which have been treated as part of mental health services research. Mental Health In Developing Countries Essay