Discuss pre-disposing factors of domestic violence .

Discuss pre-disposing factors of domestic violence .
Experiences Of Women Victimized By Domestic Violence Essay

The purpose of this project was to study the experiences of domestic violence victimized women in Kenya and understand their encounters in the abusive relationships. The aim is to acquire knowledge on the prevalence and the pre-disposing factors of domestic violence in order to help in the planning and implementation of mitigation programs. This study was conducted through Ujamii society, an organization that offers a help line for women victimized by domestic violence. The study was qualitative and data collection method was open-ended questionnaires whereby the informants expressed themselves unlimited. Data analysis was made by deductive content analysis method. The study found out that culture, alcohol abuse and economic factors were the major causes of domestic abuse against women. Most of the women gave positive feedback how Ujamii society has helped them find alternative ways in dealing with their domestic violence experiences. Experiences Of Women Victimized By Domestic Violence Essay

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

In a survey conducted in 2010 by a district education office in Kenya obtained information on the incidence of domestic violence in Kenya. The survey indicated that violence against women is widespread and occurs among all social economic groups. There is however lack of information on accurate estimates of domestic violence against women due to largely unreported cases. In America, a national survey conducted among 6000 families concluded that a significant number of men assaulted their spouses. (FIDA Kenya 2010). Domestic violence has been a long-standing problem in Kenya, particularly in rural areas. A study conducted in 2003 explored the factors associated with physical and sexual abuse, on a sample of 4,876 married women aged 15-49 years in the Kenya demographic survey. The results indicated that almost half of the married women interviewed reported at least one type of violence 36% was physical and 13 % were sexual. (FIDA Kenya 2009). Experiences Of Women Victimized By Domestic Violence Essay

Various factors contribute to high occurrence of domestic violence against women. This includes economic factors that render women sorely dependent on their husband. Economic dependency diminishes a woman’s ability to have a say in a relationship or take action in the occurrence of domestic abuse. Cultural factors also contribute to the marginalization of women making it more acceptable for domestic violence to exist in the society. Lack of effective government initiatives discourages women from seeking protection. Social acceptances of domestic violence against women and deeply engrained cultural beliefs on the inferiority of women as well as gender roles have encouraged the practice. (Cooper et al. 2005, 120.)

Ujamii Society in Kenya is a Non-government organization organized by women for women. The purpose for the organization is to create a helpline for women who have been abused and suffered from advanced effect of domestic violence. The organization offers legal representatives to the buttered women as well as psychological and physical therapy. Experiences Of Women Victimized By Domestic Violence Essay

This study was conducted through Ujamii society, a program that works directly with the domestic violent victimized women. Ujamii Society is a Non-government organization that was established with the purpose of creating a helpline for women who have been abused and suffered from advanced effect of domestic violence. The organization offers legal representatives to the buttered women as well as psychological and physical therapy.

Ujamii society is financed by the central government through CDF (constituency development fund). Constituency development fund was introduced by the central government to fund local municipalities with the purpose of enabling the local government’s finance their individual needs. Due to high prevalence in domestic violence, Nairobi municipality felt the need to create a sanctuary for women who experienced domestic violence. Ujamii society co-operates with the police, district attorneys and family counseling centers and other organizations that advocate for women. (Ujamii society 2010) Experiences Of Women Victimized By Domestic Violence Essay

Ujamii society prevents violation against women by their male spouses by offering an alternative and empowering the women. The goal is to help the women from abuse through refuge, counseling, collecting information and experiences about the abuse and legal representation. The project also aims at developing services that teach self-economic dependency for the women. The purpose of the Ujamii society is to increase the security of all the family members and to direct them to places where they can get help through counseling. The goal is to stop the violence and to help the women to change their attitudes so that they can live in equal relationships. (Ujamii Society Kenya). Experiences Of Women Victimized By Domestic Violence Essay

The activities in Ujamii society work process include phone services where battered women voluntarily contact the organization for help. After the first phone contact, they arrange an individual meeting with the client where the process starts, depending on the client’s situation and the help needed, the client is referred to self-help groups within the organization where the women share and exchange experiences and how to stop the abuse.

Domestic violence is any abusive behavior used to control a spouse, or partner. Women have been victims of such abuse for many years, and continue to be victimized not only physically, but psychologically. Often, abuse begins with a desire of feeling in control, or feeling in power of the victim. Next, another important cause as to why domestic violence begins, is substance abuse. “women at the highest risk for being the victim of domestic violence include those with male partners who abuse drugs (especially alcohol), are unemployed or underemployed, afflicted by poverty, or have not graduated from high school,” (Roxanne Dryden-Edwuards). Also, issues like poverty and homelessness emerge as a result of domestic violence. “Between 25%-50% of homeless families have lost their homes as a result of intimate partner violence.” (Roxanne Dryden-Edwuards). Also, women who experience domestic abuse might resort to drugs and alcohol as a coping mechanism, ultimately becoming addicted to such substances. Victims also experience physiological damage, to the point of developing serious conditions like the Stockholm Syndrome. Although there are many causes, the effects of domestic abuse on women are quite detrimental to not only their psychological, but physical health as well. Experiences Of Women Victimized By Domestic Violence Essay
First of all, domestic abuse begins as the partner wants to feel in control of the relationship, “Domestic abuse between spouses or intimate partners is when one person in a marital or intimate relationship tries to control the other person. The perpetrator uses fear and intimidation and may threaten to use or may actually use physical violence.” (Tina de Benedictis, Jaelline and Jeanne Segal). The abuser focuses on intimidating the other partner using verbal, nonverbal, or physical tactics to ultimately gain control over the other person. For the other person to comply with their desires, the abuser might also resort to using emotional abuse, “Emotional abuse includes verbal abuse such as yelling, name-calling, blaming, and shaming. Isolation, intimidation, and controlling behavior also fall under emotional abuse.” (Stop Violence Against Women). The perpetrator may isolate the victim from friends and family, or manipulate them into thinking they are to blame for the abusive behavior. Experiences Of Women Victimized By Domestic Violence Essay

Typically, when a person hears the term “domestic violence”, they envision a man abusing a woman. However, recently researchers have discovered that domestic violence covers a wide variety of abuse, including: child abuse, elder abuse, same-sex partner abuse, and women harming men abuse (Blais & Hayes, 2016). It has become crucial to the healthcare industry that nurses become educated on domestic violence. Nurses play a critical role in screening for domestic violence, addressing the issue of domestic violence with the patient, and providing direct support to that patient. If nurses are not educated on domestic violence, it can be tough to screen a patient who is a victim of domestic violence. Recently, there has been a new nursing position that has developed to just treat people with domestic violence. This nursing role is essential to the nursing community because that nurse would be the direct link to helping a patient who is a victim of domestic violence. Experiences Of Women Victimized By Domestic Violence Essay

Next, another, yet equally important cause for domestic violence is substance abuse. “substance abuse occurs in conjunction with intimate partner violence anywhere from 40 to 60 percent of the time. Additionally, approximately 20 percent of abusive males admit to consuming some type of drug and/or alcoholic beverage before acting aggressively toward their partners.” (rehabcenter.net). Substance abuse and domestic violence most of the times go hand in hand. Whether it is one of the partners, or both that are having an excessive consumption of alcohol or drugs, such substance abuse leads to violent acts. This is because when being in an impaired state many people cannot find a way to suppress their anger, and ultimately take it out on their partners. “the risk for violent behavior increases with intoxication, but only among individuals who are prone to suppressing their feelings of anger while they are sober. Testing people who reported that they were prone to burying their angry feelings, researchers observed a 5 percent increase in violent behavior that followed a 10 percent increase in drinking to the point of getting drunk.” (americanaddictioncenters.org). This comes to show, that people who experience intolerance, or have anger issues are more likely to be violent when under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Experiences Of Women Victimized By Domestic Violence Essay

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Accordingly, being in an abusive relationship can have serious effects on the person who is being abused. One of the main issues that emerge after dealing with an abusive partner is poverty or homelessness. “Approximately 50% of all women who are homeless report that domestic violence was the immediate cause of their homelessness.” (domesticshelters.org; endhomelessness.org). Many of the people being affected by an abusive partner, feel a desperate need to get away, and often times stay with the partner because they are afraid, or because they are given a financial stability. In the end, once they decide to run away from the abuser, since they cannot find the means to sustain themselves, they are faced with the harsh reality of poverty and homelessness. In the words of researchers, “recent statistics suggest that on a single night in January 2017 16 percent of the overall homeless population, 87,329 people, reported having experienced domestic violence at some point. Research from a study in New York City indicates that one in five families experienced domestic violence in the five years before entering shelter.” (endhomelessness.org). These numerical evidences come to show the reality of many people today, and the detrimental effects domestic violence can have on these victims. Experiences Of Women Victimized By Domestic Violence Essay
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Moreover, contrary to popular belief, it is not only the aggressors who tends to use alcohol and drugs. Often times, drug usage begins because the perpetrator may make the victim forcefully consume such substances, “In some cases a partner may force the victim to abuse drink or drugs, either as a punishment or as a promise that by joining them in their habit they won’t inflict further violence.” (stepstorecovery.com). Therefore, when becoming used to consuming drugs, the victim may not want to leave the abuser as they feel afraid of confronting the authorities about their addiction, or many times because they are so addicted to the drugs their partner is providing, that they do not want to lose such supplies.

Drug abuse can also begin as a result of the prolonged hostility, victims tend to look for comfort in substances such as drug and alcohol. Drug abuse emerges as a result of feelings of depression and anxiety, as people try to cope with the psychological effects of domestic violence. “Victims of domestic abuse are more likely to use tobacco and marijuana, as well as engage in other compulsive behaviors, such as eating disorders. Compared to people who do not experience domestic violence, victims are 70 percent more likely to abuse alcohol.” (americanaddictioncenters.org). The presence of alcohol or drugs in the victim’s body is dangerous for a few reasons. First, being in an impaired state makes the victim more vulnerable and weaker to the point in which they cannot defend themselves from the abuse, making it easier for the abuser to take full control of the situation. Next, when the victim is under the influence of such substances, it becomes harder for them to assess the hostile situation they are in, thus remaining in it because of the damaging effects of drugs or alcohol. Experiences Of Women Victimized By Domestic Violence Essay

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