Discuss the concept of learned optimism and how it relates to coping with stress by individuals.

Discuss the concept of learned optimism and how it relates to coping with stress by individuals.


Assignment: Near-death Experiences

Create an APA essay with 1200-1500 words, complete the following questions using 4 scholarly sources to support your perspective.

Discuss the concept of learned optimism and how it relates to coping with stress by individuals.
Describe how framing heuristics affect a manager’s escalation of commitment.
Describe the five conflict-handling modes.
Explain the three conflict negotiation models and situations in which each would be appropriate.
A life review is a phenomenon widely reported as occurring during near-death experiences, in which a person rapidly sees much or the totality of their life history. It is often referred to by people having experienced this phenomenon as having their life “flash before their eyes”. Life review therapy involves adults referring to their past to achieve a sense of peace or empowerment about their lives. While life review therapy isn’t for everyone, there are certain groups of people it may benefit. This type of therapy can help put life in perspective and even reveal important memories about friends and loved ones. Therapists center life review therapy around life themes or by looking back on certain time periods. These include childhood, parenthood, becoming a grandparent, or working years. Teachers often ask their students to conduct life reviews with older adults or loved ones. Students may wish to record, write, or videotape these sessions for sharing purposes in the future. There can be benefits for families when their loved one participates in life review therapy. The family may learn things they never knew before. Saving these memories through video, audio, or writing can be a treasured piece of family history. Therapists also use life review therapy to treat depression in older adults. And a doctor may use life review therapy to accompany other medical treatments, such as medications to reduce anxiety or depression. Life review therapy can promote improved self-esteem. People may not realize the significance of their accomplishments—from raising children to being the first person in their family to earn a college degree. Reminiscence in skilled hands may be a useful adjunct when caring for older individuals. The individual may benefit psychologically from a feeling of increased self-esteem and control. Staff must clearly establish a modality in which to utilize reminiscence; goals must be set. Problems that may result from uncovering certain memories must be carefully dealt with and may even require the assistance of a skilled psychotherapist. Additional research is necessary to improve our understanding of this potentially useful international tool.

You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.

Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.

Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.

The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.

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