Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes

Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes
NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology

Module 1: Foundational Concepts of Cellular Pathophysiology

What’s Happening This Module?
This course is composed of eight (8) separate modules. Each module consists of an overarching topic and each week within the module includes specific subtopics for learning. As you work through each module, you will draw upon the knowledge you gain by completing various Knowledge Checks and Case Study Assignments.

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Module 1: Foundational Concepts of Cellular Pathophysiology is a 2-week module, Weeks 1 and 2 of the course. In this module, you will examine fundamental concepts of cellular processes and the alterations that lead to various diseases. You will evaluate the genetic environment and its impact on these diseases. You will also evaluate the impact of patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, on physiological functioning.

What do I have to do? When do I have to do it?
Review your Learning Resources Days 1–7, Weeks 1 and 2
Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes Post by Day 3 of Week 1 and respond to your colleagues by Day 6 of Week 1. NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology
Module 1 Assignment: Case Study Analysis You are encouraged to work on your Module 1 Assignment throughout the module. However, this Assignment is not due until Day 7 of Week 2.
Go to the Week’s Content
Week 1

Week 1: Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment
One of the more common biology analogies refers to cells as the “building blocks” of life. This rightfully places an emphasis on understanding cells, cellular behavior, and the impact of the environment in which they function.

Such an understanding helps explain how healthy cell activity contributes to good health. Just as importantly, it helps explain how breakdowns in cellular behavior and alterations to cells lead to health issues.

This week, you examine cellular processes that are subject to alterations that can lead to disease. You evaluate the genetic environments within which these processes exist as well as the impact these environments have on disease. NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology

Learning Objectives
Students will:

Evaluate cellular processes and alterations within cellular processes
Evaluate the impact of the genetic environment on disease
Learning Resources
Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)
Required Media (click to expand/reduce)
Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes

Photo Credit: Getty Images

At its core, pathology is the study of disease. Diseases occur for many reasons. But some, such as cystic fibrosis and Parkinson’s Disease, occur because of alterations that prevent cells from functioning normally.

Understanding of signals and symptoms of alterations in cellular processes is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For the Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN), this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

For this Discussion, you examine a case study and explain the disease that is suggested. You examine the symptoms reported and explain the cells that are involved and potential alterations and impacts.

To prepare:

By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific scenario for this Discussion. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.
By Day 3 of Week 1
Post an explanation of the disease highlighted in the scenario you were provided. Include the following in your explanation:

The role genetics plays in the disease.
Why the patient is presenting with the specific symptoms described.
The physiologic response to the stimulus presented in the scenario and why you think this response occurred.
The cells that are involved in this process. NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology
How another characteristic (e.g., gender, genetics) would change your response.
Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6 of Week 1
Respond to at least two of your colleagues on 2 different days and respectfully agree or disagree with your colleague’s assessment and explain your reasoning. In your explanation, include why their explanations make physiological sense or why they do not

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Submission and Grading Information
Grading Criteria
To access your rubric:

Week 1 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 of Week 1 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 1
To Participate in this Discussion:

Week 1 Discussion

What’s Coming Up in Week 2?

Photo Credit: Getty Images/iStockphoto

Next week, you will examine alterations in the immune system and the resultant disease processes. You will also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, that may impact altered physiology. NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology

Next Week
To go to the next week:

Week 2

NURS_6501_Discussion_Rubric
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List View
Excellent Good Fair Poor
Main Posting
Points Range: 45 (45%) – 50 (50%)
Answers all parts of the Discussion question(s) with reflective critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

Supported by at least three current, credible sources.

Written clearly and concisely with no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style. NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology

Points Range: 40 (40%) – 44 (44%)
Responds to the Discussion question(s) and is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

At least 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth.

Supported by at least three credible sources.

Written clearly and concisely with one or no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Points Range: 35 (35%) – 39 (39%)
Responds to some of the Discussion question(s).

One or two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed.

Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Post is cited with two credible sources.

Written somewhat concisely; may contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Contains some APA formatting errors.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 34 (34%)
Does not respond to the Discussion question(s) adequately.

Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria.

Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Contains only one or no credible sources.

Not written clearly or concisely.

Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Main Post: Timeliness
Points Range: 10 (10%) – 10 (10%)
Posts main post by Day 3.
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
N/A
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
N/A
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
Does not post main post by Day 3.
First Response
Points Range: 17 (17%) – 18 (18%)
Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of Learning Objectives.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

Points Range: 15 (15%) – 16 (16%)
Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

Points Range: 13 (13%) – 14 (14%)
Response is on topic and may have some depth.

Responses posted in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 12 (12%)
Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.

Second Response
Points Range: 16 (16%) – 17 (17%)
Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of Learning Objectives.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

Points Range: 14 (14%) – 15 (15%)
Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

Points Range: 12 (12%) – 13 (13%)
Response is on topic and may have some depth.

Responses posted in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 11 (11%)
Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.

Participation
Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Meets requirements for participation by posting on 3 different days.
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
N/A
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
N/A
NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
Does not meet requirements for participation by posting on 3 different days.
Total Points: 100
Week 2

Week 2: Altered Physiology
With a place squarely in the spotlight for patients diagnosed with all manner of disease, APRNs must demonstrate not only support and compassion, but expertise to guide patients’ understanding of diagnoses and treatment plans. NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology

This expertise goes beyond an understanding of disease and sciences, such as cellular pathophysiology. APRNs must become experts in their patients, understanding their medical backgrounds, pertinent characteristics, and other variables that can be factors in their diagnoses and treatments.

This week, you examine alterations in the immune system and the resultant disease processes. You consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, and the impact they have on altered physiology.

Learning Objectives
Students will:

Evaluate cellular processes and alterations within cellular processes
Analyze alterations in the immune system that result in disease processes
NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology
Identify racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning
Evaluate the impact of patient characteristics on disorders and altered physiology
Learning Resources
Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)
McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

Chapter 1: Cellular Biology; Summary Review
Chapter 2: Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology: Environmental Agents(pp. 46-61; begin again with Manifestations of Cellular Injury pp. 83-97); Summary Review
Chapter 3: The Cellular Environment: Fluids and Electrolytes, Acids, and Bases,
Chapter 4: Genes and Genetic Diseases (stop at Elements of formal genetics); Summary Review
Chapter 5: Genes, Environment-Lifestyle, and Common Diseases (stop at Genetics of common diseases); Summary Review
Chapter 7: Innate Immunity: Inflammation and Wound Healing NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology
Chapter 8: Adaptive Immunity (stop at Generation of clonal diversity); Summary Review
Chapter 9: Alterations in Immunity and Inflammation (stop at Deficiencies in immunity); Summary Review
Chapter 10: Infection (stop at Infectious parasites and protozoans); (start at HIV); Summary Review
Chapter 11: Stress and Disease (stop at Stress, illness & coping); Summary Review
Chapter 12: Cancer Biology (stop at Resistance to destruction); Summary Review
Chapter 13: Cancer Epidemiology (stop at Environmental-Lifestyle factors); Summary Review
Note: You previously read these chapters in Week 1 and you are encouraged to review once again for this week.

Justiz-Vaillant, A. A., & Zito, P. M. (2019). Immediate hypersensitivity reactions. In StatPearls. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513315/

​Credit Line: Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions – StatPearls – NCBI Bookshelf. (2019, June 18). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513315/. Used with permission of Stat Pearls.
Note: This article was presented in the Week 1 resources. If you read it previously you are encouraged to review it this week.

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)
Immunity and Inflammation
Khan Academy (2010, February 24). Inflammatory response | Human anatomy and physiology | Health & medicine [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FXSuEIMrPQk

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 14 minutes.

Soo, P. (2018, July 28). Pathophysiology Ch 10 alterations in immune function [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jz0wx1-jTds NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 37 minutes.

Acid-Base Balance #1
MedCram. (2012, April 28). Medical acid base balance, disorders & ABGs explained clearly [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4wMEMhvrQxE

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 13 minutes.

Acid-Base Balance #2
MedCram. (2012, April 29). Medical acid base balance, disorders & ABGs explained clearly | 2 of 8 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GmEeKVTpOKI

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 15 minutes.

Hyponatremia
MedCram. (2017, December 23). Hyponatremia explained clearly [LK1] (remastered) – Electrolyte imbalances [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bLajK5Vy55M

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 15 minutes.

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children
In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 3, 7, and 8 that relate to alterations in immunity, hyponatremia, and acid/base balance.

Note: To access the online resources included with the text, you need to complete the FREE online registration that is located at https://evolve.elsevier.com/cs/store?role=student

To Register to View the Content
Go to https://evolve.elsevier.com/cs/store?role=student
Enter the name of the textbook, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children, or ISBN 9780323654395 (name of text without the edition number) in the Search textbox.
Complete the registration process.
To View the Content for This Text
Go to https://evolve.elsevier.com/
Click on Student Site.
Type in your username and password.
Click on the Login button.
Click on the plus sign icon for Resources on the left side of the screen.
Click on the name of the textbook for this course. NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology
Expand the menu on the left to locate all the chapters.
Navigate to the desired content (checklists, videos, animations, etc.).
Note: Clicking on the URLs in the APA citations for the Resources from the textbook will not link directly to the desired online content. Use the online menu to navigate to the desired content.

Module 1 Assignment: Case Study Analysis
An understanding of cells and cell behavior is a critically important component of disease diagnosis and treatment. But some diseases can be complex in nature, with a variety of factors and circumstances impacting their emergence and severity.

Effective disease analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond isolated cell behavior. Genes, the environments in which cell processes operate, the impact of patient characteristics, and racial and ethnic variables all can have an important impact.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Hero Images

An understanding of the signals and symptoms of alterations in cellular processes is a critical step in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For APRNs, this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify cell, gene, and/or process elements that may be factors in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient health. NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology

To prepare:

By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.

The Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)
Develop a 1- to 2-page case study analysis in which you:

Explain why you think the patient presented the symptoms described.
Identify the genes that may be associated with the development of the disease.
Explain the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems.
By Day 7 of Week 2
Submit your Case Study Analysis Assignment by Day 7 of Week 2.

Reminder: The School of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The sample paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information
To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “M1Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
Click the Module 1 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
Click the Module 1 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “M1Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria
To access your rubric:

Module 1 Assignment Rubric

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity
To check your Assignment draft for authenticity: NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology

Submit your Module 1 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 2
To participate in this Assignment:

Module 1 Assignment

What’s Coming Up in Module 2?

Photo Credit: Getty Images/iStockphoto

In Module 2, you will analyze processes related to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. To do this, you will analyze alterations in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and the resultant disease processes. You will also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, which may impact physiological functioning and altered physiology.

Week 3 Knowledge Check: Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders

In the Week 3 Knowledge Check, you will demonstrate your understanding of the topics covered during Module 2. This Knowledge Check will be composed of a series of questions related to specific scenarios provided. It is highly recommended that you review the Learning Resources in their entirety prior to taking the Knowledge Check, since the resources cover the topics addressed. Plan your time accordingly.

Next Module
To go to the next Module:

Module 2 NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology

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