Discussion Week 1 Microbiology

Discussion Week 1 Microbiology

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reference needs to be from the textbook

Microbiology- a system approach- six edition

Penicillium Camemberti

Jennifer Carrigan

Microbiology 1- Dr. R

Penicillium Camemberti is a “yeast like” fungus from the penicillium group, it is a cellular microorganism. Penicillium camemberti is said to be a “domesticated” form of penicillium commune. Penicillium camemberti is widely and predominantly used in the dairy industry. This fungus is the only truly filamentous strain used for white mold cheese making. Specifically, in the making of the popular cheeses, Camembert, Langres, Coulommiers, Camboloza and Brie. After the lactic acid fermentation, yeast may grow inside and the penicillium camemberti will grow on the exterior, it also gives these cheeses a unique and earthy flavor.

The penicillium camberti is either added directly into the cheese while being made or onto the exterior. During this process, the fungus forms a firm protective crust which can sometimes vary in color. The color often stays white but due to differences in strains of penicillium camemberti, some produce a larger amount of lipolytic and proteolytic enzymes while others produce a larger amount of mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid. Thus, causing some strains to produce a heavy white mycelium or a flatter white mycelium. Some strains can also present in shades of gray or green. When used on cheeses that are made using raw milk, the color could change even more over time, presenting with a mycelium of pink, red, or even yellow. The addition of salt also plays a role in the color as well. This crust that forms on the exterior is greatly beneficial because it hinders the growth of unwanted or potentially harmful mold contaminants during the aging process.

In addition to its primary use in making cheese, penicillium camemberti is also used as a starter culture in the production of fermented meat products. It is often found as an natural colonizer of fermented sausages, such as salami, peperoni and chorizo, originating from the mycobiota of the production facility. It also provides the meat with a unique” ripened flavor” while preventing the lipids from oxidation. This process greatly improves the flavor, smell and overall quality of these meats.

Penicillium camemberti has been predominantly used in the dairy industry but is still being researched today to find future uses in other nondairy-related areas.

References

J.C. Frisvad, in Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology (Second Edition) , 2014

“A. Abbas, A.D.W. Dobson, in Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (Second Edition) , 2011” (“Penicillium camemberti – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics”)

Bruna, José M.; Hierro, Eva M.; de la Hoz, Lorenzo; Mottram, Donald S.; Fernández, Manuela; Ordóñez, Juan A. (15 August 2003). “Changes in selected biochemical and sensory parameters as affected by the superficial inoculation of Penicillium camemberti on dry fermented sausages”. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 85 (1–2): 111–125. doi: 10.1016/s0168-1605(02)00505-6 . PMID 12810276 .

Marjorie Kelly Cowan ; Heidi Smith. “Microbiology, A systems Approach, Sixth Edition.”

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