How many layers of management are there between the frontline and the highest office-holders of the organization?

How many layers of management are there between the frontline and the highest office-holders of the organization?

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Discussion: Analyzing Organizations

Discussion: Comparing Frameworks for Analyzing Organizations

Avedis Donabedian’s work generated a pivotal means of assessing organizational performance relative to structure, process, and outcomes. However, it is clearly not sufficient to view health care quality merely in terms of outcomes—the structures and processes that facilitate these outcomes are equally as important.

In this Discussion, you consider multiple frameworks that can be used to analyze an organization. As you proceed, consider how these frameworks allow you to examine the interplay of interdependent and related parts and processes that comprise the systems within an organization, as well as the arrangements or structures that connect these parts.

To prepare:

Investigate and reflect on the systems and structures of an organization with which you are familiar. Consider the following:

What is the reporting structure?

Who holds formal and informal authority?

How many layers of management are there between the frontline and the highest office-holders of the organization?

How are interdisciplinary teams organized?

How is communication facilitated?

How well integrated is decision making among clinical personnel and administrative professionals?

How are particular service lines organized?

Which departments, groups, and/or individuals within the organization are responsible for monitoring matters related to performance, such as quality and finances?

Select two of the following frameworks:

Learning organizations, presented in the Elkin, Haina, and Cone article

Complex adaptive systems (CAS), presented in the Nesse, Kutcher, Wood, and Rummans article

Clinical microsystems, presented in the Sabino, Friel, Deitrick, and Sales-Lopez article

Good to great, presented in the Geller article

The 5 Ps, presented in the ASHP Foundation article

Review the Learning Resources for each of the frameworks that you selected. Also conduct additional research to strengthen your understanding of how to use each framework to assess an organization.

Compare the two frameworks. How could each framework be used to identify opportunities to improve performance? In particular, how would you use each of these frameworks to analyze the organization that you have selected?

Post an analysis of the systems and structures of the organization you selected, sharing specific examples. Explain insights that you gained by comparing the two frameworks, and how each can be used to assess an organization, identify a need for improvement, and, ultimately, enhance the performance of an organization.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days using one or more of the following approaches:

Compare the organizational structure of your colleague’s selected organization to your own.

Ask a clarifying question.

Select an attribute of the identified organizational structure and ask your colleague to elaborate on how this attribute is evidenced in their organization.

Required Readings

Hickey, J. V., & Brosnan, C. A. (2017). Evaluation of health care quality in for DNPs (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Chapter 1, “Evaluation and DNPs: The Mandate for Evaluation” (pp. 3-36)

Chapter 3, “Conceptual Models for Evaluation in Advanced Nursing Practice” (pp. 61-86)

Chapter 6, “Evaluating Organizations and Systems” (pp. 127-142)

Chapter 1 defines microsystem, mesosystem, and macrosystem and notes that evaluation can focus on one of these levels or all three. Chapter 5 examines the evaluation of organizations and systems.

Sadeghi, S., Barzi, A., Mikhail, O., & Shabot, M. M. (2013). Integrating quality and strategy in health care organizations, Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Chapter 2, “Understanding the Healthcare Organization” (pp. 31–43)

Although this chapter focuses on hospitals, the authors provide information about strategic planning and organizational structure that is applicable in many health care settings. The authors examine financial and quality issues as key aspects of performance measurement.

Elkin, G., Zhang, H., & Cone, M. (2011). The acceptance of Senge’s learning organisation model among managers in China: An interview study. International Journal of Management, 28(4), 354–364.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

This article outlines the five disciplines that Senge argued could be found in a learning organization. The authors also discuss the worldview that is inherent in business organizations in China and explain how this relates to Senge’s theory.

Geller, E. S. (2006). From good to great in safety: What does it take to be world class? Professional Safety, 51(6), 35–40.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Geller reviews and applies Collin’s foundational Good to Great theory from its focus on financial success to safety.

Nesse, R. E., Kutcher, G., Wood, D., & Rummans, T. (2010). Framing change for high-value healthcare systems. Journal for Healthcare Quality, 32(1), 23–28.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

This article explores how to implement change in complex adaptive systems (CAS) such as health care. The authors purport that an understanding of the principles of change management in CAS is critical for success.

Sabino, J. N., Friel, T., Deitrick, L. M., & Salas-Lopez, D. (2009). Striving for cultural competence in an HIV program: The transformative impact of a microsystem in a larger health network. Health & Social Work, 34(4), 309–313.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

The authors discuss cultural competence as part of a patient-centered perspective on health care delivery. They examine an approach to creating innovation that originates at the unit (microsystem) level and can be diffused to the larger health care environment (macrosystem).

ASHP Foundation. (n.d.). Assessing your microsystem with the 5 Ps. Retrieved February 5, 2012, from

This article discusses 5 Ps—purpose, patients, professionals, processes, and patterns—that you can analyze to deepen your understanding of a microsystem.

Document: Course Project Overview (PDF)

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2013f). Organizational structures. Retrieved from

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 3 minutes.

Dr. Carol Huston discusses the influence of organizational structure on the delivery of quality care.

Discussion: Analyzing Organizations

Discussion: Analyzing Organizations

You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.

Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.

Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.

The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.


Discussion Questions (DQ)

Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
Weekly Participation

Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.
APA Format and Writing Quality

Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes

I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
LopesWrite Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.
Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.

Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.

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