NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology

NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology
Week 2 assignment – NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Assignments

Assignment: Adaptive Response

As an advanced practice nurse, you will examine patients presenting with a variety of disorders. You must, therefore, understand how the body normally functions so that you can identify when it is reacting to changes. Often, when changes occur in body systems, the body reacts with compensatory mechanisms. These compensatory mechanisms, such as adaptive responses, might be signs and symptoms of alterations or underlying disorders. In the clinical setting, you use these responses, along with other patient factors, to lead you to a diagnosis.

Consider the following scenarios:

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Scenario 1:

Jennifer is a 2-year-old female who presents with her mother. Mom is concerned because Jennifer has been “running a temperature” for the last 3 days. Mom says that Jennifer is usually healthy and has no significant medical history. She was in her usual state of good health until 3 days ago when she started to get fussy, would not eat her breakfast, and would not sit still for her favorite television cartoon. Since then she has had a fever off and on, anywhere between 101oF and today’s high of 103.2oF. Mom has been giving her ibuprofen, but when the fever went up to 103.2oF today, she felt that she should come in for evaluation. A physical examination reveals a height and weight appropriate 2-year-old female who appears acutely unwell. Her skin is hot and dry. The tympanic membranes are slightly reddened on the periphery, but otherwise normal in appearance. The throat is erythematous with 4+ tonsils and diffuse exudates. Anterior cervical nodes are readily palpable and clearly tender to touch on the left side. The child indicates that her throat hurts “a lot” and it is painful to swallow. Vital signs reveal a temperature of 102.8oF, a pulse of 128 beats per minute, and a respiratory rate of 24 beats per minute.

Scenario 2:

Jack is a 27-year-old male who presents with redness and irritation of his hands. He reports that he has never had a problem like this before, but about 2 weeks ago he noticed that both his hands seemed to be really red and flaky. He denies any discomfort, stating that sometimes they feel “a little bit hot,” but otherwise they feel fine. He does not understand why they are so red. His wife told him that he might have an allergy and he should get some steroid cream. Jack has no known allergies and no significant medical history except for recurrent ear infections as a child. He denies any traumatic injury or known exposure to irritants. He is a maintenance engineer in a newspaper building and admits that he often works with abrasive solvents and chemicals. Normally he wears protective gloves, but lately they seem to be in short supply so sometimes he does not use them. He has exposed his hands to some of these cleaning fluids, but says that it never hurt and he always washed his hands when he was finished.

Scenario 3:

Martha is a 65-year-old woman who recently retired from her job as an administrative assistant at a local hospital. Her medical history is significant for hypertension, which has been controlled for years with hydrochlorothiazide. She reports that lately she is having a lot of trouble sleeping, she occasionally feels like she has a “racing heartbeat,” and she is losing her appetite. She emphasizes that she is not hungry like she used to be. The only significant change that has occurred lately in her life is that her 87-year-old mother moved into her home a few years ago. Mom had always been healthy, but she fell down a flight of stairs and broke her hip. Her recovery was a difficult one, as she has lost a lot of mobility and independence and needs to rely on her daughter for assistance with activities of daily living. Martha says it is not the retirement she dreamed about, but she is an only child and is happy to care for her mother. Mom wakes up early in the morning, likes to bathe every day, and has always eaten 5 small meals daily. Martha has to put a lot of time into caring for her mother, so it is almost a “blessing” that Martha is sleeping and eating less. She is worried about her own health though and wants to know why, at her age, she suddenly needs less sleep.

To Prepare

Review the three scenarios, as well as Chapter 6 in the Huether and McCance text.

Identify the pathophysiology of the disorders presented in each of the three scenarios, including their associated alterations. Consider the adaptive responses to the alterations.

Review the examples of “Mind Maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in this week’s Learning Resources. Then select one of the disorders you identified from the scenarios. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct a mind map for the disorder you selected. Consider the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of the disorder, as well as any adaptive responses to alterations.

Review the Application Assignment Rubric found under Course Information

To Complete

Write a 2- to 3-page paper excluding the title page, reference page and Mind Map that addresses the following:

For each of the three scenarios explain the pathophysiology, associated alterations and the patients’ adaptive responses to the alterations caused by the disease processes. You are required to discuss all three scenarios within the paper component of this assignment.

Construct one mind map on a selected disorder presented in one of the scenarios. Your Mind Map must include the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of the disorder, as well as any adaptive responses to alterations.

By Day 7

This Assignment is due.

Note: The School of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/57.htm). All papers submitted must use this formatting

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK2Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.

Click the Week 2 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.

Click the Week 2 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.

Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK2Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.

If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.

Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

Week 4 assignment – NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Assignments

Assignment: Disorders of the Veins and Arteries

Advanced practice nurses often treat patients with vein and artery disorders such as chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT). While the symptoms of both disorders are noticeable, these symptoms are sometimes mistaken for signs of other conditions, making the disorders difficult to diagnose. Nurses must examine all symptoms and rule out other potential disorders before diagnosing and prescribing treatment for patients. In this Assignment, you explore the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of CVI and DVT.

To Prepare

Review the section “Diseases of the Veins” (pp. 598-599) in Chapter 23 of the Huether and McCance text. Identify the pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis. Consider the similarities and differences between these disorders.

Select a patient factor different from the one you selected in this week’s Discussion: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Think about how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of CVI and DVT. Reflect on how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on the factor you selected.

Review the “Mind Maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in the Week 2 Learning Resources. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct two mind maps—one for chronic venous insufficiency and one for venous thrombosis. Consider the epidemiology and clinical presentation of both chronic venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis.

To Complete

Write a 2- to 3-page NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Assignments paper that addresses the following:

Compare the pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis. Describe how venous thrombosis is different from arterial thrombosis.

Explain how the patient factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of CVI and DVT. Describe how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on the factor you selected.

Construct two mind maps—one for chronic venous insufficiency and one for deep venous thrombosis. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment you explained in your paper.

By Day 7

The Assignment is due.

Note: The School of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/57.htm). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

Please save your NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Assignments using the naming convention “WK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.

Click the Week 4 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.

Click the Week 4 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.

Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.

If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.

Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

Week 6 assignment – NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Assignments

Assignment: Asthma

Complications of asthma can be sudden. Consider the case of Bradley Wilson, a young boy who had several medical conditions. He appeared in good health when he went to school, returned home, and ate dinner. However, when he later went outside to play, he came back inside wheezing. An ambulance took him to the hospital where he was pronounced dead (Briscoe, 2012). In another case, 10-year-old Dynasty Reese, who had mild asthma, woke up in the middle of the night and ran to her grandfather’s bedroom to tell him she couldn’t breathe. By the time paramedics arrived, she had passed out and was pronounced dead at the hospital (Glissman, 2012). These situations continue to outline the importance of recognizing symptoms of asthma and providing immediate treatment, as well as distinguishing minor symptoms from serious, life-threatening symptoms. Since these symptoms and attacks are often induced by a trigger, as an advanced practice nurse, you must be able to help patients identify their triggers and recommend appropriate treatment options. For this reason, you need to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation.

To Prepare

Review “Asthma” in Chapter 27 of the Huether and McCance text. Identify the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation. Consider how these disorders are similar and different.

Select a patient factor different from the one you selected in this week’s Discussion: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Think about how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of both disorders. Reflect on how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on the factor you selected.

Review the “Mind maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in the Week 2 Learning Resources. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct two mind maps—one for chronic asthma and one for acute asthma exacerbation. Consider the epidemiology and clinical presentation of both chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation.

To Complete

Write a 2- to 3-page NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Assignments paper that addresses the following:

Describe the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation. Be sure to explain the changes in the arterial blood gas patterns during an exacerbation.

Explain how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of both disorders. Describe how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment for a patient based on the factor you selected.

Construct two mind maps—one for chronic asthma and one for acute asthma exacerbation. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment you explained in your paper.

By Day 7

This NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Assignments is due.

Note: The School of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/57.htm). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Reference

Briscoe, K. (2012, May 12). Thetford: mother of Bradley Wilson, who died of asthma attack, told there was nothing she could have done. East Anglian Daily Times. Retrieved from http://www.eadt.co.uk/news/thetford_mother_of_bradley_wilson_who_died_of_asthma_attack_told_there_was_nothing_she_could_have_done_1_1375128

Glissman, B. (2012, May 21). Girl’s death puts focus on asthma’s broader grip. Omaha World-Herald. Retrieved from http://www.omaha.com/article/20120521/LIVEWELL01/305219975

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Assignments for review and grading, do the following:

Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK6Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.

Click the Week 6 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Assignments.

Click the Week 6 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.

Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK6Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.

If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.

Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

Week 8 assignment – NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Assignments

Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility

Jamie is a 3-month-old female who presents with her mother for evaluation of “throwing up.” Mom reports that Jamie has been throwing up pretty much all the time since she was born. Jamie does not seem to be sick. In fact, she drinks her formula vigorously and often acts hungry. Jamie has normal soft brown bowel movements every day and, overall, seems like a happy and contented baby. She smiles readily and does not cry often. Other than the fact that she often throws up after drinking a bottle, she seems to be a very healthy, happy infant. A more precise history suggests that Jamie does not exactly throw up—she does not heave or act unwell—but rather it just seems that almost every time she drinks a bottle she regurgitates a milky substance. Mom thought that she might be allergic to her formula and switched her to a hypoallergenic formula. It didn’t appear to help at all, and now Mom is very concerned.

Cases like these are not uncommon. The mother was concerned and thinking her daughter may have an allergy; she changed to a different formula. However, sometimes babies have immature GI tracts that can lead to physiology reflux as they adapt to normal life outside the uterus. Parents often do not consider this possibility, prompting them to change formulas rather than seeking medical care. As in the case study above, GI alterations can often be difficult to identify because many cause similar symptoms. This same issue also arises with adults—adults may present with symptoms that have various potential causes. When evaluating patients, it is important for the advanced practice nurse to know the types of questions he or she needs to ask to obtain the appropriate information for diagnosis. For this reason, you must have an understanding of common GI disorders such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and gastritis.

To Prepare

Review this week’s media presentation on the gastrointestinal system.

Review Chapter 35 in the Huether and McCance text. Identify the normal pathophysiology of gastric acid stimulation and production.

Review Chapter 37 in the Huether and McCance text. Consider the pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and gastritis. Think about how these disorders are similar and different.

Select a patient factor different from the one you selected in this week’s Discussion: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Consider how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of GERD, PUD, and gastritis. Reflect on how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on this factor.

Review the “Mind Maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in the Week 2 Learning Resources. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct a mind map for gastritis. Consider the epidemiology and clinical presentation of gastritis.

To Complete

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

Describe the normal pathophysiology of gastric acid stimulation and production. Explain the changes that occur to gastric acid stimulation and production with GERD, PUD, and gastritis disorders.

Explain how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of GERD, PUD, and gastritis. Describe how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on the factor you selected.

Construct a mind map for gastritis. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment you explained in your paper.

By Day 7

This NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Assignments is due.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Assignments for review and grading, do the following:

Please save your NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Assignments using the naming convention “WK8Assgn1+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.

Click the Week 8 NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Assignments 1 Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.

Click the Week 8 Assignment 1 link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.

Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK8Assgn1+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.

If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Assignments paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.

Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

Week 10 assignment – NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Assignments

The Pathophysiology of Disorders

During the last 5 weeks, you have explored various body systems: neurological, cardiovascular, respiratory, and hematological. These four systems work together along with other body systems to complete a myriad of functions. For this reason, when disorders occur within one body system, it can create potentially devastating effects throughout the entire body. For instance, Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the central nervous system, yet its alterations actually affect multiple body systems from the cardiovascular system to the gastrointestinal system. In this Assignment, you examine alterations associated with disorders, as well as the impact of the alterations on multiple body systems.

To Prepare

From the list below, select a disorder of interest to you:

Alzheimer’s disease

Asthma in children

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Congestive heart failure

Hepatic disease (liver disease)

Hypertension

Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

Seizures

Sepsis

Identify alterations associated with your selected disorder. Consider the pathophysiology of the alterations. Think about how these alterations produce pathophysiological changes in at least two body systems.

Reflect on how patient factors such as genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, and behavior might impact the pathophysiology of the alterations you identified, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of your selected disorder.

Review the “Mind maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in the Week 2 Learning Resources. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct a mind map for the disorder you selected. Consider the epidemiology and clinical presentation of your selected disorder.

To Complete

Develop a 5- to 10-slide PowerPoint presentation that addresses the following:

Describe your selected disorder, as well as associated alterations. Explain the pathophysiology of the alterations, including changes that occur in at least two body systems.

Explain how genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, and behavior might impact the pathophysiology of the alterations you identified, as well as diagnosis and treatment of your selected disorder.

Construct a mind map for the disorder you selected. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology of alterations, risk factors, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of the disorder.

By Day 7

Submit the Pathophysiology of Disorders Assignment. This NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Assignments was presented in Week 8 and is due.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Assignments for review and grading, do the following:

Please save your NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Assignments using the naming convention “WK10Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.

Click the Week 10 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.

Click the Week 10 NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Assignments link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.

Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK10Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.

If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.

Click on the Submit button to complete your NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Assignments submission.

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